Around , for example, similar "romantic" features were to be seen in the poetry of Syrian exiles in America, of the Egyptian "Apollo" group, and of the Tunisian ash-Shabbi, the last having been born in an oasis of the interior. Egypt was the political, cultural, and religious centre of the Fatimid empire. After the definitive fixing of the Arabic script around , by Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi, many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Qur'an and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration.
While one may emphasize the distinctive Iberian character of the Arab literature of Spain, the Arabic language used in Spain remains very close to the classical models. While the Arabic language as one language can be a unifying factor, the language is often not unique at all. Caliph Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in Even before Mohammed there was some common cultural awareness among the Arabs.